2022, VOL. 8 ISSUE 2, PART A
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has ravaged the globe, killing a large number of people. Along with the hand hygiene, social distancing, disinfection of surfaces and wearing a mask is an essential precaution since the main mode of transmission is through respiratory droplets.
Masks of various types provide varying degrees of protection to the user. Masks are used as protective equipment to shield the respiratory system from potentially harmful air droplets and aerosols such as viruses and other airborne particles. The filtering efficacy of the various masks against these aerosols varies due to the particles' varying sizes, shapes, and characteristics. As a result, filtration efficiencies must be evaluated, which is important for respiratory virus transmission, in order to reduce penetration percentages in the most extreme situations. Many studies have already shown the efficiency of filtration through various layers and finishing, but there is a gap in showing the difficulties people face while wearing face masks in terms of design, comfort, and fit.
There is limited knowledge available on the performance of different types of commercially available masks. This review discusses the different types of face masks and respiratory masks available in Indian market, literature on their application, their advantages and disadvantages and the comparison of various masks available in the market. Furthermore, the relevant filtration mechanisms of aerosol penetration through masks are explored. It also talks about the technical details of commercial and home-made masks and recent advances in mask performance and quality on the basis of design, comfort and fit.